It might have accomplished some of its goals had it taken things in sequence. An Era of Conflict . The Marshall-Truman tale, though undoubtedly apocryphal, was repeated thereafter as a reminder that, during the war in Europe, the relationship between the British and Americans was so acrimonious that Marshall, and his British counterparts, feared their alliance might shatter. Why did Russia lose? From the Russian point of view, the only winning move was not to play. It didn’t, but a working knowledge of the fraught Anglo-American partnership remains crucial to understanding the European conflict. The subsequent victory in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5 and Japan’s capture, in alliance with the British, of the German concession at Tsingtao (today Qingtao) on the Shandong Peninsula in 1914 established it as the dominant power in the region, a position confirmed by the decision at Versailles in 1919 to hand it the German holdings in China. So Japan could never have crushed U.S. maritime forces in the Pacific and imposed terms on Washington. It's imperative for small states with big ambitions to avoid making war against everyone in sight. The Persistence of Conflict: China's War with Japan and Its Impact, Memory, and Legacy, 1931 to the Present. "Japan could never have crushed U.S. maritime forces in the Pacific and imposed terms on Washington. But Halsey cultivated loyalty, and received it. There, the inter-Allied feuding that marred the war with Germany was replaced by a fractious competition between the United States Navy and the Army over resources, strategy and public acclaim. Occupation of Taiwan by Japan; Battle of Ganghwa (1875) Japan: Korea: … The Japanese leadership would have boosted its prospects had it embraced them all. The views expressed here are his own. The Japanese war plan, aimed at the American, British, and Dutch possessions in the Pacific and in Southeast Asia, was of a rather makeshift character. His solution to the problem of latent U.S. material superiority was to strike at what navalists saw as the hub of enemy power -- the adversary's battle fleet. The nascent Two-Ocean Navy Act fleet was. - Listen to Yamamoto. It took Russia a while to organise its response.. James Holmes is J. C. Wylie Chair of Maritime Strategy at the Naval War College. Japan To the shock of Russia and the rest of the Western European world Japan easily won the war between Russia and Japan. Media: Wikipedia. There are many "What if Germany" so I thought I would ask this one. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize, the 1999 National Book Award for Nonfiction, finalist for the Lionel Gelber Prize and the Kiriyama Pacific Rim Book Prize, Embracing Defeat is John W. Dower's brilliant examination of Japan in the immediate, shattering aftermath of World War II. The Japanese declared war on Russia on Feb 8 1904. Most of Asia, Australia, the Pacific and west coast would be conquered by Japan, and Europe, Africa, the Middle East, West Asia, and the East Coast would be under the Germans, there would be no cold war, or terrorism it would be a more well disciplined world. Dispensing with the MacArthur-Nimitz meeting in his first chapter (it’s a good tale, but often told) allows Toll to turn his focus on the Navy, his true area of expertise as well as his enduring passion, and he deftly completes the portraits of Admirals Ernest King, Chester Nimitz, Raymond Spruance and William “Bull” Halsey that he provided in his previous volumes. As a result, Japan did not have the negotiating power many expected. Moving cautiously, while its modern navy and army were still in the infant stage, Japan took over several groups of small islands not far from its homeland without having to fight for them. As intelligence assessments of Japan’s actual defensive dispositions began to build up, however, `Downfall’ came under increasing pressure. The best that Yamamoto's scheme could accomplish, consequently, was to delay an American counteroffensive into 1943. As it turned out, Halsey’s rotten execution was nearly his undoing when, in October 1944, the Japanese lured him into a pointless pursuit of a group of stripped-down aircraft carriers during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. So Japan could never have crushed U.S. maritime forces in the Pacific and imposed terms on Washington. A valuable ally during World War I, the European powers and the U.S. recognized Japan as a colonial power after the war. By foregoing a strike at Hawaii, they could have enfeebled the opponent's resolve or, perhaps, sidelined the opponent entirely. I’ll cover in detail the 2 only real ways Japan could have won in World War 2. The war remained undeclared until December 9, 1941, and ended after Allied counterattacks during World War II brought about Japan’s surrender. Bottom line, no likely masterstroke -- no single stratagem or killing blow -- would have defeated the United States. The views expressed here are his own. Germany won the second world war and divided up America with Japan. Any tactician worth his salt will tell you a 360-degree threat axis -- threats all around -- makes for perilous times. Almost more than any other during the Second World War, this battle was won due to a fortunate combination of good intelligence, planning, and, most of all, luck. … Imposing discipline on the war was particularly hard for Japan, whose political system -- patterned on Imperial Germany's, alas -- was stovepiped between the Imperial Japanese … Badly outnumbered, the US Navy sunk four Japanese aircraft carriers and forced the Japanese to retreat. U.S. industry would be turning out armaments in massive quantities, while new vessels laid down under the Two-Ocean Navy Act of 1940 -- in effect a second, bulked-up U.S. Navy -- would start arriving in the theater. The first draft, submitted by the chiefs of the Army and Navy General Staff, was accepted by Imperial General Headquarters early in September 1941. “When word came that … The IJA cast its gaze on continental Asia, where a land campaign in Manchuria, then China proper, beckoned. But China is a whole new ball game. The rise of Nimitz and Spruance pushed the irascible King into the background, where he took on his proper role as the Navy’s key defender among the Joint Chiefs of Staff, with Halsey cast as Nimitz’s headstrong bad boy. The latter strategy won the day, as being potentially the least costly to the Allies in the long run, and became`Operation Downfall’. It was planned to start in November 1945, and was predicted to run well into the spring of 1946. During that interval, Japan needed to stun American society into a compromise peace -- in effect a partition of the Pacific -- while firming up the island defense perimeter enclosing the Asia-Pacific territories won by Japanese arms. The war was won before the bombs dropped People pray in front of the cenotaph for the victims of the 1945 atomic bombing at Peace Memorial Park in Hiroshima, western Japan… © Copyright 2021 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved. The war had a greater context of which country would dominate the far East. Sounds counterintuitive, doesn't it? It was a negotiated peace, rather than a complete or crushing victory, but hugely important for Japan's rising status in the world. Imperial Japan stood next to no chance of winning a fight to the finish against the United States. It took Russia a while to organise its response.. By mid-1943, the U.S. was launching an Essex-class carrier at the rate of one ship every two months. Tokyo stared that plight in the face following Pearl Harbor. Such a physical mismatch was simply too much for island state Japan -- with an economy about one-tenth the size of America's -- to surmount. The charge sheet against Halsey is long and complex, but is nowhere rendered more grimly than in Toll’s description of his “pattern of confusion, sloppiness and impulsiveness in basic procedures,” his “slapdash habits,” his penchant “to speak first and think later,” his persistent promotion of his own “glorified public image” and his questionable familiarity with naval aviation — a requirement, you would think, in a theater that featured carrier operations. In Japan, this led to the rise of ultra-right wing and nationalist leaders, such as Fumimaro Konoe and Sadao Araki, who advocated uniting Asia under the rule of the emperor. TWILIGHT OF THE GODSWar in the Western Pacific, 1944-1945By Ian W. Toll, On the morning of May 8, 1945, Gen. George Marshall traveled from his Pentagon office to the White House to tell President Harry Truman that Germany had surrendered. Their conflicting ambitions sparked the Russo-Japanese War of 1904, which ended in a stunning victory for Japan in 1905. Let's face it. ... Japan lost the Pacific War, as Toll suggests, from the moment the first bombs dropped on Pearl Harbor. Who won the Russo-Japanese War? Why did Russia lose? Resolve and resources explain why. The general who had won the war in Europe months earlier, Dwight Eisenhower, recalled his reaction to being told by the secretary of war, Henry Stimson, that the atomic bomb would be used. By 1942 Japan’s industrial capacity had peaked, whereas the American war machine was still growing. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto reputedly cautioned his superiors that Japan must win a quick, decisive victory lest it awaken the American "sleeping giant" with fateful consequences for Japan. Neglecting undersea warfare was an operational transgression of the first order. Although it happened nearly 1,000 years ago, people today still remember the names and accomplishments of some of the great warriors who fought in this civil war. 9 years ago. There were six reasons why Japan won the war: Japan made a surprise attack on Port Arthur in 1904 (as it was to do at Pearl Harbor in 1941!). There are three basic ways to win wars according to the great Carl. - Concentrate rather than disperse resources. Japan, with its modernized army and navy, at once won a series of striking victories against the Chinese, who, in the Treaty of Shimonoseki (April 17, 1895), ceded to Japan the Kwantung (Liaodong) Peninsula, on which Port Arthur (now Dalian) stands, together with Formosa and the Pescadores (P’eng-hu) … Army in World War II,” the Navy has never been keenly interested in its own history, which is why it hesitantly acquiesced to Morison’s request, and only because Roosevelt thought it a good idea. They could have made the conflict more costly, painful, and prolonged for America, undercutting its resolve. In the war’s aftermath, the Japanese … How the U.S. Won World War II Without Invading Japan More people died in the March 1945 firebombing of Tokyo than at either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. That doesn't mean it couldn't have won World War II." The decision, Toll writes, was based on the assumption that the American people were too “soft” to wage war and, once attacked, would look for a way out. The coupon code is whatifalthist. And they extended the empire's outer defense perimeter -- and assumed vast new waterspace to defend -- by opening a secondary theater in the Solomon Islands, in a vain effort to interrupt sea routes connecting North America with Australia. But Halsey was not Nimitz’s Patton: Patton needed constant monitoring, but made few mistakes; Halsey was more pliable, but made mistakes galore. Just as Japanese officials seemed incapable of restricting themselves to one war at a time, they seemed incapable of limiting the number of active operations and combat theaters. It may have altered world history. The Japanese might conceivably have invaded northern Australia. Japan lost the Pacific War, as Toll suggests, from the moment the first bombs dropped on Pearl Harbor. Whether it was plausible for them to act wisely is open to debate. The primary members of the Allies were the British Empire, France, Italy (after 1915) and the Russian Empire, although Russia pulled out before the end of the war. Updated 0007 GMT (0807 HKT) May 25, 2019 . Indeed, Clausewitz notes that it sometimes makes sense for the lesser contender to start a fight. Toll’s familiarity with this hitherto hidden tussle, while still incomplete, is elaborate enough to be provocative, which new historical ideas often are. 38,000; Japanese, 58,257. It would be a tyrannical and vicious regime. By mid-1943, the U.S. was launching an Essex-class carrier at the rate of one ship every two months. About 8,000 Japanese people held jobs related to the Korean War, most of them in ports preparing for the dispatch of American … That set off protests known, from the … In Japan the armed forces have won almost complete control of the government and the nation. When you purchase an independently reviewed book through our site, we earn an affiliate commission. The US won a trade war against Japan. Imperial Japan stood next to no chance of winning a fight to the finish against the United States. So long as Americans kept their dander up, demanding that their leaders press on to complete victory, Washington had a mandate to convert the republic's immense industrial potential into a virtually unstoppable armada of ships, aircraft, and armaments. Conserving enemies is a must even for the strongest combatants. The war between Russia and Japan was fought over control of Korea and Manchuria. About what the defeated Japanese would have done if they had won World War II. “I can assure you that my intentions were excellent, but my execution rotten.”. While Morison’s resulting 15-volume “History of United States Naval Operations in World War II” is celebrated as classic and definitive, it is neither. Within 6 months The attack on Pearl Harbour was by all accounts, impressive to say the least. Gempei War, (1180–85), final struggle in Japan between the Taira and Minamoto clans that resulted in the Minamoto’s establishment of the Kamakura shogunate, a military dictatorship that dominated Japan from 1192 to 1333. Japan’s surrender Japan surrendered on Aug. 15, 1945, after the U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing 100,000 to 200,000 people. That doesn't mean it couldn't have won World War II. Did Japan pose a threat to Europe? Badly outnumbered, the US Navy sunk four Japanese aircraft carriers and forced the Japanese to retreat. And this time, Japan is winning. Key point: Political victory isn't achieved through overt military dominance alone.
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